Energy poverty secondary indicators

Energy poverty secondary indicators

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status – EU-SILC survey

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status: total (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 11.4 11.0 11.1 11.6 11.4 11.1 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.9 11.1 0.54
Belgium 10.6 11.0 9.6 10.4 9.4 9.8 9.4 8.9 8.4 7.8 9.5 9.5 0.99
Denmark 18.5 16.7 17.9 15.6 15.1 15.1 15.7 14.7 15.6 14.1 15.9 15.6 1.40
Spain 10.0 10.7 10.3 10.9 10.3 10.2 9.8 8.9 8.5 8.2 9.8 10.1 0.93
Italy 8.7 8.1 8.9 8.5 8.6 9.6 8.2 8.2 8.7 8.6 8.6 0.46
Slovenia 4.7 5.2 6.0 6.4 6.1 5.7 5.2 4.9 4.1 4.4 5.3 5.2 0.77
United Kingdom 16.4 7.3 7.9 12.5 12.4 12.3 12.4 15.1 12.0 12.4 3.13

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status: owner, with mortgage or loan (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 8.6 7.7 7.7 7.5 6.7 5.4 4.7 4.2 4.2 6.3 6.7 1.70
Belgium 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.1 2.4 2.5 2.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 2.5 2.6 1.06
Denmark 11.6 9.8 7.5 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.7 5.4 2.28
Spain 9.6 9.7 8.2 9.0 8.7 6.7 4.5 3.5 3.7 3.0 6.7 7.4 2.72
Italy 6.6 6.3 6.7 5.5 4.8 4.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 4.1 4.8 1.40
Slovenia 10.5 8.7 11.6 9.7 11.5 7.7 6.0 5.1 3.1 4.4 7.8 8.2 3.06
United Kingdom 8.8 4.7 4.3 6.7 4.9 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.6 5.0 1.49

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status: owner, with no outstanding mortgage or loan (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 6.3 6.7 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.4 5.9 5.6 5.4 6.3 6.4 0.58
Belgium 2.4 4.1 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.3 2.0 1.6 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 0.78
Denmark 9.1 6.1 6.7 7.1 4.3 4.3 8.5 7.1 8.6 8.0 6.1 7.1 1.69
Spain 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.6 1.8 2.2 2.5 2.7 0.36
Italy 2.9 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.6 2.7 2.6 3.2 2.9 2.8 0.37
Slovenia 2.8 2.8 3.4 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.4 2.9 2.9 2.8 0.36
United Kingdom 9.1 1.7 1.5 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.2 7.0 4.5 4.2 2.53

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status: tenant, rent at market price (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 26.8 25.8 25.9 28.0 27.7 28.0 26.4 27.0 26.3 26.9 26.8 0.86
Belgium 38.1 37.2 34.0 38.1 33.7 36.0 34.9 34.8 30.5 29.4 34.7 34.8 2.95
Denmark 35.4 34.7 37.1 32.9 31.9 31.6 31.7 28.9 30.7 25.2 32.0 31.8 3.39
Spain 42.7 44.7 42.3 47.5 43.3 43.0 42.1 38.1 37.4 35.9 41.7 42.5 3.55
Italy 34.6 34.2 34.2 32.4 32.7 32.2 28.2 29.1 29.2 31.9 32.4 2.44
Slovenia 18.3 26.6 25.8 27.4 25.9 29.0 24.3 21.7 19.4 18.6 23.7 25.1 3.91
United Kingdom 45.0 23.8 25.3 34.6 37.1 35.4 38.6 37.7 34.7 36.3 7.01

Housing cost overburden rate by tenure status: tenant, rent at reduced price or free (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 13.7 11.6 10.9 12.2 12.0 13.0 13.9 11.0 11.4 12.2 12.0 1.12
Belgium 14.9 15.3 12.8 13.3 14.2 12.2 12.1 14.4 14.9 11.0 13.5 13.8 1.45
Denmark 33.8 26.1 29.9 29.9 5.44
Spain 7.7 8.0 9.5 10.8 9.9 10.6 13.1 10.1 9.3 8.2 9.7 9.7 1.60
Italy 10.1 10.0 10.9 10.5 9.9 12.7 10.7 8.3 9.6 10.3 10.1 1.18
Slovenia 5.6 6.1 6.8 8.2 8.2 7.7 7.6 6.4 5.9 5.2 6.8 6.6 1.10
United Kingdom 23.9 7.6 8.4 16.0 15.2 16.2 20.5 20.3 16.0 16.1 5.73

Material and social deprivation rate

Material and social deprivation rate (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
European Union 12.9 11.2 10.0 8.7 7.9 7.5 9.7 9.3
Belgium 5.7 5.0 5.9 5.3 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.3 5.3
Denmark 3.6 5.2 3.6 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.3
Spain 12.0 9.7 10.2 8.6 8.2 8.0 10.6 9.6 9.7
Italy 16.2 14.7 11.3 8.0 8.1 8.0 11.1 9.7
Slovenia 10.3 8.0 6.2 6.3 5.3 3.4 3.2 6.1 6.2
United Kingdom 9.9 8.6 8.0 6.2 5.9 7.7 8.0

Overcrowding rate by tenure status – total population – EU-SILC survey [ilc_lvho05c]

Overcrowding rate by tenure status: owner, with mortgage or loan (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 7.4 7.6 8.0 7.3 7.7 7.6 7.0 6.8 7.0 7.4 7.4 0.39
Belgium 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.3 1.3 1.2 0.75
Denmark 3.3 4.3 3.7 3.8 4.4 3.2 3.8 3.7 4.9 3.5 3.9 3.8 0.53
Spain 5.0 4.1 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.0 3.6 2.8 3.5 5.7 3.9 3.7 0.88
Italy 24.3 25.6 27.4 25.6 28.5 30.0 29.7 31.5 31.4 28.2 28.5 2.65
Slovenia 12.4 12.5 12.1 13.3 12.8 11.3 10.4 8.9 8.1 8.3 11.0 11.7 1.96
United Kingdom 4.7 3.8 4.3 3.4 3.2 4.2 2.0 2.4 3.5 3.6 0.94

Overcrowding rate by tenure status: owner, no outstanding mortgage or housing loan (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 20.0 19.6 19.6 19.1 18.9 18.3 17.9 17.1 16.7 18.6 18.9 1.16
Belgium 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.4 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.37
Denmark 2.8 1.5 3.2 4.2 2.5 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.3 5.7 3.8 4.3 1.27
Spain 4.2 3.6 3.0 3.5 3.9 4.0 3.1 2.6 2.9 4.3 3.5 3.5 0.59
Italy 18.9 19.8 20.2 20.5 20.9 20.7 20.6 21.1 21.4 20.5 20.6 0.75
Slovenia 14.1 13.2 12.1 11.1 10.2 9.4 9.5 9.0 8.1 7.3 10.4 9.8 2.20
United Kingdom 1.4 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.0 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.4 0.35

Overcrowding rate by tenure status: tenant, rent at reduced price or free (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 18.8 19.3 19.4 19.7 20.0 20.4 19.4 19.5 19.8 19.6 19.5 0.46
Belgium 6.7 5.1 6.7 7.4 4.5 10.2 16.0 17.2 17.4 18.1 10.9 8.8 5.60
Denmark 15.2 13.7 15.9 15.5 14.9 15.7 16.1 17.6 18.2 17.6 16.0 15.8 1.39
Spain 16.8 14.1 12.0 12.0 11.7 12.5 12.4 12.8 16.3 18.8 13.9 12.7 2.49
Italy 40.5 43.7 43.8 44.9 45.7 43.7 42.5 42.1 42.4 43.3 43.7 1.57
Slovenia 51.3 49.4 47.2 44.4 38.5 37.4 36.8 39.1 38.5 38.1 42.1 38.8 5.48
United Kingdom 11.1 12.9 16.2 14.6 16.1 14.1 5.4 9.6 12.5 13.5 3.68

Overcrowding rate by tenure status: tenant, rent at reduced price or free (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 25.0 25.1 25.0 25.0 24.2 24.9 21.5 24.2 25.3 24.5 25.0 1.18
Belgium 3.8 2.4 3.7 2.5 4.2 7.8 7.5 13.2 10.4 10.9 6.6 5.8 3.88
Denmark 18.3 14.7 16.5 16.5 2.55
Spain 11.2 9.6 11.7 10.8 10.1 10.9 9.0 8.3 11.5 11.0 10.4 10.9 1.13
Italy 33.1 37.5 38.7 39.0 36.8 36.4 34.7 36.2 38.4 36.8 36.8 1.94
Slovenia 20.4 21.3 20.7 19.8 19.8 17.0 18.7 18.1 16.7 16.4 18.9 19.3 1.77
United Kingdom 17.3 16.6 17.5 16.7 16.0 19.7 8.4 13.6 15.7 16.6 3.41

People at risk of poverty or social exclusion

People at risk of poverty or social exclusion (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
European Union 23.9 23.4 22.3 21.8 22.8 22.9
Belgium 21.6 22.2 22.0 20.5 20.0 20.4 21.1 21.1
Denmark 18.6 17.5 17.8 17.5 17.3 16.8 17.6 17.5
Spain 28.7 28.8 27.5 27.3 26.2 27.0 27.6 27.4
Italy 28.4 27.8 26.0 25.7 24.6 26.5 26.0
Slovenia 17.7 16.9 16.6 15.4 13.7 14.3 15.8 16.0
United Kingdom 23.1 21.9 21.8 22.8 22.4 22.4

Share of population living in a dwelling not comfortably cool during summer time by income

Share of population living in a dwelling not comfortably cool during summer time by income quintile and degree of urbanisation

Country First quintile Second quintile Third quintile Fourth quintile Fifth quintile
European Union 25.1 21.1 18.5 16.4 14.4
Belgium 19.0 14.9 10.1 8.6 9.6
Denmark 10.7 13.6 10.7 13.2 8.2
Spain 36.7 30.7 24.6 20.2 15.7
Italy 36.9 29.2 24.7 21.4 17.7
Slovenia 20.1 19.5 19.2 14.8 12.9
United Kingdom 4.0 4.4 2.9 3.3 1.9

Total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames or floor – EU-SILC survey [ilc_mdho01]

Total population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames or floor

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 mean median Stdev
EU 15.6 15.1 15.6 15.7 15.2 15.4 13.3 13.9 13.2 14.8 15.2 1.02
Belgium 21.2 18.7 18.1 17.5 18.2 19.2 18.4 17.9 16.7 15.7 18.2 18.1 1.47
Denmark 16.3 17.6 16.6 15.0 16.1 15.9 14.9 16.4 14.9 16.8 16.1 16.2 0.90
Spain 16.1 12.0 16.7 17.1 15.2 15.9 11.5 15.9 14.7 19.7 15.5 15.9 2.39
Italy 23.4 21.4 22.9 25.0 24.1 21.0 16.1 13.2 14.0 20.1 21.4 4.50
Slovenia 34.7 31.5 27.0 29.9 26.9 23.8 22.0 22.7 20.6 20.8 25.1 25.4 4.84
United Kingdom 15.9 17.2 15.9 16.6 14.8 16.4 17.0 17.6 16.4 16.5 0.89